open science

various tubes of oil color

measuring art: RizbA, a rating instrument between art and psychology

PhD project (cand. phil.) at Witten/Herdecke University, Faculty of Health, Department Psychology and Psychotherapy, supervisor: Prof. Dr. Thomas Ostermann
since 2016

what does my art work have to do with me?

One of art therapy’s basic assumptions is that inner representations are reflected in the pictorial expression; i.e. the artwork I create has something to do with me and my inner representations. This affects a wide variety of differential psychological and clinical constructs. These relationships have hardly been researched quantitatively since there is a lack of reliable measuring instruments. Psychology has been concerned with the arts for some time as well – when it comes to experimental aesthetics or art psychology. However, pictorial expression as a differential psychological concept received little attention, probably because there is a lack of reliable measuring instruments.

bridging art + science

This work closes this gap between art and science. In arts and humanities qualitative methods are mostly used for image analysis. This work breaks with this tradition and links visual science contents with quantitative, psychometric methodology. The rating instrument for two-dimensional visual works (RizbA) is developed for this purpose. It is a 26 items questionnaire, which measures pictorial expression and includes contents of a formal picture analysis, such as representation, color, shape, space, movement and composition.

validation studies

It was tested in three randomized validation studies in a test-retest design with representative samples of pictures created by amateurs and contemporary art.

Study 1Study 2Study 3
imagesamateurs’
pictorial works
N = 12
amateurs’
pictorial works
N = 294
contemporary artworks
N = 318
ratersart therapists
NT1 = 12
NT2 = 8
diverse experts
(e.g. art therapists, art pedagogues, art historians, artists, designers, restorers)
NT1 = 880
NT2 = 475
diverse experts
(e.g. art therapists, art pedagogues, art historians, artists, designers, restorers)
NT1 = 506
NT2 = 238
citationSchoch, K., Gruber, H., & Ostermann, T. (2017). Measuring art: Methodical development of a quantitative rating instrument measuring pictorial expression (RizbA). The Arts in Psychotherapy, 55, 73-79. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aip.2017.04.014Schoch, K., & Ostermann, T. (2021, May 4). Psychometrics of art: Validation of RizbA, a quantitative rating instrument for pictorial expression. SocArXiv. https://doi:10.31235/osf.io/uc9e2Schoch, K., & Ostermann, T. (2020). Giving the art greater weight in art psychology: RizbA, a quantitative questionnaire for formal picture analysis. Creativity. Theories – Research – Application 7(2), 373-410. https://doi.org/10.2478/ctra-2020-0019
Validation studies: Pictorial material and raters
N = sample size, T1 = test, T2 = retest

statistical quality criteria

Statistical parameters, factor analyses and fit indices serve as quality criteria. This results in a medium to high capacity of differentiation between pictorial works and a high inter-rater reliability. The test-retest reliability is high as well. Principal component analyses suggest an interpretable eight-factor structure (spatiality, shaping, pictorial elements (drawing vs. painting), representation, color intensity, color mixture, composition, and picture effect).

Time of measurementStudy 1Study 2Study 3
Capacity for differentiation between images
ηp2
T1
T2
.90
.77
.28
.33
.31
.40
Testretest reliability r.92.93.86
Factors (PCA)488
Inter-rater reliability ICCT1
T2
.53
.92
.81
.84
.86
.73

Statistical quality criteria: Overall test
T1 = test, T2 = retest, ηp²= partial eta squared effect size estimator, r = Korrelation, PCA = Principal component analysis, ICC = intra-class correlation coefficient

an open methodology questionnaire for transdisciplinary research

The three studies suggest that the questionnaire can be generalized so that it can be applied to both amateurs works and contemporary art. As the first reliable measuring instrument, RizbA opens up new perspectives. It creates the methodological basis for an objective measurement of pictorial expression as a differential psychological variable as well as other psychological correlates of art. This promotes new transdisciplinary research approaches in psychology, aesthetics and art science. In the future, testing on non-Eurocentric samples, Confirmatory factor analyzes and machine learning approaches are planned for further validation.

download RizbA

The current version of the RizbA questionnaire in German language is an Open Methdology Tool and freely available for research and documentation. The lastest paper-pencil-version is available via:

Schoch, K. (2020, April 24). Ratinginstrument für zweidimensionale bildnerische Arbeiten (RizbA): Fragebogen mit Erläuterungen in deutscher Sprache [Rating instrument for two-dimensional pictorial works (RizbA): Questionnaire with explanatory notes in German]. Zenodo. doi:10.5281/zenodo.3765221

publications

All publications are avaliable as Open Access (manuscript, preprint or postprint):

Schoch, K., & Ostermann, T. (2021, May 4). Psychometrics of art: Validation of RizbA, a quantitative rating instrument for pictorial expression. SocArXiv. https://doi:10.31235/osf.io/uc9e2

Pacher, A., Heck, T., & Schoch, K. (2021, March 11). Open Editors: A dataset of scholarly journals’ editorial board positions. SocArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31235/osf.io/jvzq7

Schoch, K., & Ostermann, T. (2020). Giving the art greater weight in art psychology: RizbA, a quantitative questionnaire for formal picture analysis. Creativity. Theories – Research – Application 7(2), 373-410. https://doi.org/10.2478/ctra-2020-0019

Pilcicki, R., Schoch, K., & Schwienbacher, S. (Hrsg.) (2020). Wofür brauche ich dich? Neue trans- + postdisziplinäre Perspektiven in Kunst + Forschung [What do I need you for? New trans- + postdisciplinary perspectives in art + research]. Publikationsreihe Kunst + Forschung, No. 9. Ottersberg: Hochschule für Künste im Sozialen, Ottersberg. http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4294894

Schoch, K. (2020). Psyche, Kreativität und Bildlicher Ausdruck: Ein quantitatives Ratinginstrument zur Formalen Bildanalyse (RizbA) [Psyche, creativity and pictorial expression: A quantitative rating instrument for formal image analysis (RizbA)]. In G. Franzen, R. Hampe, & M. Wigger (2020). Zur Psychodynamik kreativen Gestaltens: Künstlerische Therapien in klinischen Arbeitsfeldern [On psychodynamics and creativity. Creative Arts Therapies in clinical fiels of work], p. 191-196. Karl Alber Verlag. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4058380

Schoch, K. (2019). Psychotrauma und transkulturelle Unterschiede in Bildern: Ein quantitatives Ratinginstrument für zweidimensionale bildnerische Arbeiten (RizbA) [Psychotrauma and transcultural differences in pictures: A quantitative rating instrument for two-dimensional pictorial works (RizbA)]. In C. Krueger, B. Stellbrink-Kesy., C. Widdascheck, & C. Hamberger (Eds.). Kunsttherapie in Migration [Art therapy in migration]. Köln: Richter. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3573848

Schulze-Stampa, C., & Schoch, K. (Eds.) (2019). In/ter/ven/tion: in mit durch Kunst [In/ter/ven/tion: in with through art]. Publication series art + research, No. 5. Ottersberg: HKS – University of Applied sciences and arts in Ottersberg. https://zenodo.org/record/3952403

Schoch, K. (2018). Jenseits von gut und schön: Entwicklung eines quantitativen Ratinginstruments für zweidimensionale bildnerische Arbeiten (RizbA) [Beyond good and beautiful: Development of a quantitative rating instrument for two-dimensional pictorial works (RizbA)]. Musik-, Tanz- und Kunsttherapie: Zeitschrift für Künstlerische Therapien im Bildungs-, Sozial- und Gesundheitswesen, 28(2), 131-138. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1479716

Schoch, K., Gruber, H., & Ostermann, T. (2017). Measuring art: Methodical development of a quantitative rating instrument measuring pictorial expression (RizbA). The Arts in Psychotherapy, 55, 73-79. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aip.2017.04.014

Schoch, K. (2014, February 25). Ratinginstrument für zweidimensionale bildnerische Arbeiten: Methodische Arbeit zur Entwicklung eines psychologischen Tests zur Erfassung von bildnerischem Ausdruck [Rating instrument for two-dimensional pictorial works: Methodical development of a psychological test measuring pictorial expression]. University of Mannheim. Zenodo. http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1479744

supervised theses (selection)

Ladegast, S. (2020). Untersuchung von Kinderzeichnungen: Erprobung des Ratinginstrument RizbA zur Untersuchung von Entwicklungsstufen der Kinderzeichnung [Investigation of children’s drawings: Testing the RizbA rating instrument to examine developmental stages of children’s drawing]. HKS – University of Applied Sciences and Arts, Ottersberg. Open Science Framework. https://osf.io/gn3mt

Jerusalem, J. L. L. (2020, February 20). RizbA für alle: Überprüfung der Einsatzmöglichkeiten eines Ratinginstruments für zweidimensionale bildnerische Arbeiten (RizbA) und des neu dazu erstellten Manuals [RizbA for everyone: Review of the possible uses of a rating instrument for two-dimensional pictorial works (RizbA) and the newly created manual]. Witten/Herdecke University. Open Science Framework. https://osf.io/nsw49

Epstein, Clara. (2019, March 22). Bildlicher Ausdruck von Depression: Erprobung des Ratinginstruments RizbA an Bildstichproben aus dem klinischen Kunsttherapiesetting [Pictorial expression of depression: Testing the ratinginstrument RizbA on image samples from a clinical art therapy setting]. Zenodo. https://zenodo.org/record/3365921

Janßen, B. (2018, August 13). Erprobung des Ratinginstruments für zweidimensionale bildnerische Arbeiten (RizbA): Pilotstudie zur Untersuchung des bildlichen Ausdrucks in gemalten Bildern von Menschen mit chronischer Schmerzsymptomatik [Testing the rating instrument for two-dimensional pictorial works (RizbA): Pilot study for investigating pictorial expression in pictures painted by people with chronic pain symptoms]. Hochschule für Künste im Sozialen, Otterberg. Zenodo. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3407808

podcast

Open Science Radio Episode 173
Art und therapy, art science and psychology
June 27, 2019

contact

Kerstin Schoch
art therapist, psychologist
HKS – University of applied sciences and arts in Ottersberg
Am Wiestebruch 68, 28870 Ottersberg
kerstin.schoch@hks-ottersberg.de
orcid.org/0000-0002-5797-9841

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